BridgeBioLogo CRSComponents crsprod crsreverse crswaste

Current Collector

Current Collector

Porus Carbon Electrode

Porus Carbon Electrode

Anion Exchange Membrane

Cation Exchange Membrane

Spacer through which water passes

A diagram of the main components of a CRS cell is shown opposite. There are two oppositely charged electrodes with an anionic and cationic selective membrane in front of both. Water travels through the spacer and is acted upon by these electrodes.


The process involves a number of different phases where the electrodes behave very differently producing a clean output in purification phase and a waste containing impurities in the waste phase.

Components of CRS Cell

Purification Phase

The water to be treated travels into the spacer of the cell. Unwanted ions move to the oppositely charged electrodes and freely pass through the selective membrane. The ions will remain bound to the mesoporous electrode until the end of this phase. The pure water carries on with the ions removed and leaves the cell. The green dots represent cations and the red dots anions.

Regeneration Phase

Bridge Biotechnology software will then initiate regeneration phase when the electrodes are fully saturated with ions. The polarity of the electrodes will be reversed, and the ions will head towards the opposite mesoporous electrodes as before. On this occasion however they will not be able to pass through the selective membranes and the ions will become trapped in the spacer.

Waste Phase

After regeneration phase there is a concentrated brine formed in the spacer. This liquid is removed from the cell and the electrodes are reset to the original polarity. The cell will then continue onto production phase again.

CRS - How does it work?